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I see that there were a couple of attempts at depicting Chaplin--Chaplin's Life (1916) and The Life Story of Charles Chaplin (1926). The former looks to be mostly a compliation of already-released material, but Life Story was at least a partial attempt at a biopic. In Directors in British and Irish Cinema, the film was described as "essentially a travelogue of London [...] with Chick Wango impersonating Chaplin revisiting his old haunts". Chaplin had the film suppressed; I don't know if anything survives of it.
As for films that were actually released, Myrna Loy's depiction of Billie Burke in The Great Ziegfeld was probably one of the earliest examples of someone with a notable film career being dramatised onscreen, although the film was devoted to her husband. After that, things get sketchier: you have some biopics of people who dabbled in film (like the Castles, Cohan, the Dolly sisters, Texas Guinan) as well as The Jolson Story, but it seems that The Perils of Pauline in '47 may have been one of the first biopics that concentrated chiefly on a film star qua a film star.